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North Korean Overseas Laborers in Russia

25 Dec 2016
TitleConditions of Labor and Human Rights: North Korean Overseas Laborers in Russia
AuthorChan Hong Park
Publication Year2016
Price/Not for Sale$20
Publication Date2016



I. Preface

1. Background and Significance of the Investigation

2. Methodology and Scope of Research

3. Research Subjects

II. Dispatch Policy and Current State of North Korean Overseas Laborers

1. Dispatch Policy

A. Policy Goals

B. Policy Characteristics

C. Policy Implementation Agencies

Excerpts from Testimonies

2. Current State of Overseas Laborers

A. Background Information

(1) Administrative Divisions

(2) Forestry Sector

(3) Construction Sector

(4) Treatment of Foreign Laborers

B. General Situation and Dispatch Trends of North Korean Laborers

(1) General Situation

(2) Dispatch Trends

C. Dispatch of North Korean Laborers by Region

(1) General Overview of the Regions

(2) Workers in the Forestry Sector

(3) Workers in the Construction Sector

Excerpts from Testimonies

III. Selection of Workers, Labor Contracts, and Dispatch Procedure

1. Selection of Workers, Labor Contracts and Dispatch Procedure

A. Type of Recruitment

(1) Voluntary Application

(2) Unilateral Selection by the Dispatching Department

B. Selection Criteria

Excerpts from Testimonies

2. Labor Contracts

Excerpts from Testimonies

3. Dispatch Procedure

A. Recruitment Notice and Process

B. Exam and Interview Procedures

C. Preliminary Training

D. Procedure of Departure and Return

(1) Issuance of Passports and Visas and Route of Departure and Return

(2) Costs Covered by North Korean Authorities and Restricted Items

(3) Return to North Korea

Excerpts from Testimonies

IV. Labor and Human Rights Conditions

1. Basic Working Environment: Residence, Food and Sanitation

A. Residence

(1) Right of Choosing One's Residence

(2) Residence Facilities

(3) Control and Surveillance of the Places of Residence

B. Food

C. Sanitation

(1) Basic Personal Items

(2) Health and Medical Treatment

Excerpts from Testimonies

2. Working Conditions

A. Working Period, Type of Labor and Working Hours

(1) Working Period

(2) Type of Labor and Working Hours

B. Compensation (Wages and Welfare)

(1) Wages

(2) Management of Wages

(3) Incentive Pay, Severance Pay

(4) Remittance to Family

C. Work Environment and Related Diseases and Injuries

D. Illegal Work

Excerpts from Testimonies

3. Human Rights Conditions

A. Ideological Education and Surveillance System

(1) Ideological Education

(2) Surveillance System

B. Restriction in Activities

(1) Contact with Family

(2) Access to Media

(3) Contact with the Outside World

(4) Escape from the Workplace

(5) Internal Regulation and Punishment

C. Violation of the Law in the Country of Dispatch

Excerpts from Testimonies

V. Recommendations for Improvement of the Human Rights of North Korean Overseas Workers in Russia

1. Development of the International Discussion on North Korean Human Rights

A. Introduction

B. Human Rights Resolutions

2. Human Rights of Dispatched Workers

A. Violations of the Resolutions on North Korean Human Rights

B. Russia's Violations of the Resolutions on North Korean Human Rights

Excerpts from Testimonies

3. Recommendations for Improvement of the Human Rights of Dispatched North Korean Workers

A. Recommendations to the DPRK Authorities

(1) Prohibition of Extrajudicial Punishments and Forced Labor

(2) Prevention of Forced Repatriations

(3) Guarantee of Individual Freedom and Access to Information, Elimination of Discrimination Based on the Seongbun System

(4) Improvement of Severe Health Problems

(5) Prohibition of Labor Rights Violations, Compliance with International Labor Standards

B. Recommendations to Russian Authorities

(1) Preventive Measures and Sanctions for Extrajudicial Measures

(2) Supervision and Sanctions regarding the Improvement of Labor, Welfare and Sanitary Environment

C. Recommendations to the International Community and the South Korean Government

(1) UN Human Rights Regimes

(2) International NGOs

(3) South Korean Government